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Book Review of "The Business of Humanity: Strategic Management in the Era of Globalization, Innovation and Shared Value"

Annavajhula J.C. Bose

Volume 41, Issue 1 (January 2020 to June 2020)

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This book has interested me a lot for heralding a transformation in capitalism away from being shareholder-centred to becoming human-centred. The authors have documented this emerging change on the basis of sound empirical evidence wedded to appealing inductive logic. There are companies which have strategically integrated “humaneness” into their value creation, and have shown better economic performance in the process. And there are also companies which have massively invested in emerging markets to meet the needs of impoverished people in large numbers by doing a rethink of products and services, technology, and marketing, and they too have shown better economic performance. In other words, these companies have considered and included “humankind” at the bottom of the pyramid.

DOES FUTURES HELP IN PRICE DISCOVERY OF SPOT: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NSE SPOT AND FUTURE INDEX OF INDIA

Rakesh Shahani and Gurpreet Khera

Volume 39, Issue 2 (July 2018 to December 2018)

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The present study is an attempt to examine the price discovery mechanism between the stock one month futures and spot(cash) market index for the NSE Nifty Index. It investigate the lead lag relation between these two set of markets by analyzing daily closing prices data for both NSE Nifty stock index & also NSE Nifty one month futures index for a period Jan 1 , 2016 to March 28 2018 (501 observations). The econometric tools applied include Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test & KPSS test of Stationarity of Variables, Johansen Co-integration test , VAR with Error Correction Mechanism test (after determining the optimal no. of lags) & BG Serial Correlation. The results of the study revealed that the spot and futures prices of NSE Nifty were co-integrated and also had significant error corrective mechanism where the speed of correction was very fast at 93 % per period moving from short run disequilibrium to long run equilibrium. The Granger cause-effect relation was however not observed even in the VAR Model as correction towards equilibrium was arrived at a very short period of time thereby contradicting the viewpoints of researchers that futures lead the spot rates in all major stock markets. The diagnostic tests confirmed that time series of spot and futures market was stationary at 1st difference and also free from serial correlation.

Foreign Direct Investment in Multi Brand Retail in India – An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Chandra Shekhar Sharma and Sameer Lama

Volume 41, Issue 1 (January 2020 to June 2020)

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Foreign Direct Investment in Multi Brand Retail has been a contentious issue both for the policy makers and the foreign investors who are willing to invest in India. Various stakeholders are baffled to assess the overall implication of FDI in Multi Brand Retail. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to examine the perceived implications of FDI in Multi Brand Retail in India for various stakeholders. To address the central research question if it makes a sense to open the door for foreign investors in multi brand retailing in India, the authors have adopted an interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology to examine the experiences of the various stakeholders associated with foreign direct investment in multi brand retailing in India. Analysis of 52 significant statements from a series of semi structured interviews revealed that FDI in Multi Brand Retail would lead to a number of economic and social problems in India. However, it was also revealed that FDI in Multi Brand Retail would improve the logistics and infrastructural prospects in both the rural and urban areas in India. People are still skeptic with the issue of employment generation or displacement but majority of the participants feel that some form of employment will be generated as a result of FDI in multi brand retailing. The political and administrative structure shall play a critical role for the reform to be successfully implemented in India. The study is the first of its kind in India and certainly the study would help the scholars from the academia and the policy makers to presuppose their argument on FDI in multi brand retailing in India.

Beauty Contest and Learning in Rational Expectation based Stationary State

Avinash Kumar Jha

Volume 41, Issue 2 (July 2020 to December 2020)

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The paper explores the condition of instability of stationary state outcome as predicted by learning literature in defence of Rational Expectation Hypothesis-REH. By using Beauty Contest Parable in Grandmont’s temporary equilibrium framework, it is argued that under very weak and reasonable conditions agents extrapolate away from the stationary state. This result is achieved even while ignoring large deviations of the past - a method conclusively criticised by Grandmont.

IMPACT OF MACRO ECONOMIC VARIABLES ON INDIA'S STOCK MARKET: A DYNAMIC OLS APPROACH

Rakesh Shahani and Bhavya Vashisth

Volume 40, Issue 2 (July 2019 to December 2019)

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The present study makes an attempt to investigate the impact of India’s macroeconomic variables on the India’s flagship Stock Index: the NSE Nifty. The variables include monthly log transformed prices of the key macro variables viz. money supply, industrial production , rupee –dollar foreign exchange rate, Oil Price and Yield on Government Bonds. For financial variables, closing monthly prices of NSE Nifty, Oil Prices and rupee-dollar foreign exchange rate have been taken into consideration and analysis has carried out for a ten year period April 2008 to March 2018. For other macro variables we have taken closing value of their respective indices. The study employs Dynamic OLS technique of Stock and Watson (1993), a co-integration technique which corrects for simultaneity bias. To correct for the short run dynamics, an error corrective mechanism has also been established parsimoniously. Other tests included in the study are the Augmented Dickey Fuller for detection of unit root of variables and Causality tests between Nifty and each of the macro economic variables under study. The Dynamic OLS was carried out at optimal AIC Lag Identification criteria with maximum limit set at ‘3’ lags and ‘3’ leads. The Dynamic OLS was subject to parsimonious adjustment and the results showed that only three variables, CPI, Forex and Oil were having a co-integrating relation with the dependent variable NSE Nifty Prices. The Parsimonious ECM relation to determine the equilibrium link between short and long run and the results showed that lagged error term was significant and also negative with a figure of 0.51 thereby showing 51 % backward movement towards equilibrium in one period. The unit root diagnostic tests confirmed that time series of all the independent variables was stationary only at 1st difference with only NSE Nifty being stationary at level .

SUPREMACY TOWARDS THE CONTROL OF THE LEVEL OF RAHIM'S ORGANISATIONAL CONFLICT INVENTORY BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL BANKS OF PUNJAB

Shivani Nischal

Volume 40, Issue 1 (January 2019 to June 2019)

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In the Present world of privatisation, liberalization, globalization, and technological advancement every banking sector organisation is employing work force at a very faster rate. So, conflicts has been also been multiplying at a very faster rate. Only optimal level of conflict is very useful for the development of creativity, high problem solving behaviours and productivity. High level of conflict creates dysfunctional impacts upon the organisations. This research paper examines the nature and extent of organisational conflict between public sector and private sector banks selected under study. Further comparative analysis has been done across all banks in order to judge the level and extent of organisational conflict in each bank.

INFLUENCE OF BEHAVIORAL BIASES ON INVESTMENT DECISIONS

Saloni Raheja and Babli Dhiman

Volume 39, Issue 2 (July 2018 to December 2018)

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In today’s scenario, finance plays an important part in everyone’s life. In order to avoid different types of problems in life, the person should invest the money in different types of avenues. The present study concentrates on the relation between the investor behavioral biases and their investment decisions. The information was gathered from 500 investors. The investors who invest through LSC Securities ltd in Punjab were considered. The multiple regression tests were used through SPSS to test the relationship among the factors. There was a relation between the behavioral biases of the investors and their investment decisions. There was positive relation among overconfidence bias and regret bias and investment decisions. There was no relation among conservatism bias and herding bias and the investment decisions.

A Quantitative as well as Qualitative Study of CSR in the Selected Companies of IT Sector based in India

Astha Dewan and Srijana Singh

Volume 41, Issue 2 (July 2020 to December 2020)

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CSR has been an emergent area of research in the recent past. Most of the scholars, academicians and practitioners have made massive contributions in this field. The reason why IT sector is chosen is because it is uniquely positioned in terms of skills, expertise and facilities that can help benefit society in the long run. The companies that have been chosen are Infosys and Wipro as these are the top two companies that have satisfied the legal requirements in the context of CSR and have stayed profitable throughout. The main purpose of this study is to understand the history, concept and background of CSR in India, analyse the CSR expenditure for the post-mandate period of Infosys and Wipro and analyse the relationship between CSR and firm performance (net profit, operating margin, ROA, ROE and market capitalisation) separately for Infosys and Wipro. Lastly, the motive is to analyse the major CSR domains of the selected two companies and comment on the similarities and differences altogether. The sources of data used in this study are secondary and empirical in nature including annual reports of the selected two companies namely; Infosys and Wipro majorly for the post-mandate period (2014-19). The CSR expenditure and the profitability ratios including return on assets and return on equity has been considered based on the review of literature of CSR and firm performance. A CSR index has been created consisting of ten parameters explained in detail in the findings and analysis section. SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) 23 has been used to analyse the correlation and linear regression between the independent variable (CSR index scores) and profitability measures (net profit, operating margin, ROA, ROE and market capitalisation) separately. The findings suggest that in terms of CSR expenditure Infosys contributed more than 2% towards CSR during the financial years 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 and Wipro has even gone beyond 2% in the financial years 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19. In terms of CSR and firm performance, it can be observed that there is a negative or weak correlation and no linear relationship between the scores of CSR index and the profitability measures with respect to Infosys and Wipro as well. In terms of CSR domains, as compared to Infosys, the CSR domains that can be added to the Wipro’s CSR activities can be rehabilitation of homeless and orphans and disaster management relief. The domains that can be added in the context of both the companies can be gender equality programs, women safety and dignity, enhancement of vocational skills for women and care and support for the elderly. Women can be focused more upon in terms of safety provision now-a-days.

EMPIRICAL TESTING OF ARBITRAGE PRICING THEORY IN THE INDIAN STOCK MARKET: FACTOR ANALYSIS APPROACH

Shikha Menani and H.V. Jhamb

Volume 40, Issue 2 (July 2019 to December 2019)

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Investors all over the world have been in search of a model that can help them in estimating the parity between risk and return relationship which paved the way for the models like CAPM, Conditional CAPM, multi factor CAPM model with different firm specific factors, Arbitrage Pricing Theory and various other modified versions of the same. The traditional theories however have been time and again criticised for being too simple and ignoring an important aspect which is very much evident in the emerging stock markets that is the Behavioural factor. The study tested applicability of APT in the Indian context using monthly data for the period January 2000 to December 2018. Factor analysis and Fama-Macbeth regression technique has been used to find out applicability of APT in the Indian context. Results were found to be partially suited towards the applicability of the APT in estimating the risk return parity of the 500 stocks listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange.

Culture and Economic Growth: A Survey of the Literature

Priyanka Arora

Volume 40, Issue 1 (January 2019 to June 2019)

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Economists for long have been fixated with the concept of a self-interested rational economic agent. Decision making by them however is not done in isolation from the society and societal culture plays a key role there. This article provides with a review of the existing work that relates culture to macroeconomic issues like growth and development.