Articles
STAKEHOLDERS INFLUENCE ON SUSTAINABILITY DISCLOSURES: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

Geetanjali Batra, R.K. Singh and Jai Prakash Sharma

Volume 38, Issue 1

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Sustainability of a business may be expressed as the capacity of an organisation to continue its operations over a long period of time and depends to a large extent on stakeholder relationships. Sustainability reporting is being used as a communication tool to highlight organisation commitment towards sustainability and enhance relationships with stakeholders. With some stakeholder groups being in a position to influence the quality of sustainability disclosures, the objective of this paper is to find if the quality of disclosures in sustainability reports is influenced by pressure from key stakeholders groups like customers, investors, employees and NGOs or environmental organisations. To achieve the objectives a dimension of quality of sustainability disclosures is extracted using Principal Component analysis (PCA) technique of factor analysis. Industrial sector, listing status and size of the organisation are used as proxy for stakeholder salience. Using step wise multiple linear regression, the study finds causal relationship between quality of disclosures and stakeholder salience. The results show that organisations operating in environmentally sensitive sector, consumer contiguous sector, financial sector, in areas where sustainability reporting is regulated, large size and listed organisations and provide high quality disclosures.

RATES OF EQUITY RETURN - A DISAGGREGATIVE ANALYSIS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM INDIA

Shveta Singh, P. K. Jain, and Surendra S. Yadav

Volume 38, Issue 1

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Flexibility in investments helps an investor optimize his investment portfolio to suit his return-risk profile, which keeps changing with time. The motivation for this study arose from a significant research gap. There have been scant studies on the dis-aggregative aspects affecting investments. This paper assesses Indian equity returns (from the investors’ point of view) factoring both sources of income – viz., dividends and capital gains. Further, the objective of this paper was to enrich the flexibility of the reader/investor, on equity investments, by analyzing dis-aggregative parameters like age, size, ownership structure and underlying sector/industry affiliation and their impact (if any) on returns. This would provide the investor with the much desired flexibility in designing his/her portfolio. The sample for the study comprises of the NSE 500 companies and the period, under study, is spread over the past 15 years (2001-2014). The chosen sample (NSE 500 companies) represent 96.76 per cent of the free-float market capitalization and 97.01 per cent of the traded value of the stocks listed on the NSE as on December 31, 2013. According to the findings, the returns vary along with the various segregates, providing the investors diversification opportunities, based on the same. A negative correlation appears between the age of companies and returns. Further, small and medium sized companies yield higher returns compared to their large counterparts. The apparent ‘age’ and ‘size’ anomalies are also indicative of the status of market efficiency.

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND SPILLOVERS IN THE INDIAN ECONOMY

Aasheerwad Dwivedi

Volume 38, Issue 1

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Being one of the fastest growing economies, India has not only withstood the recent crisis and recovered fast, but also has emerged with brighter prospects amidst the global uncertainties. The growth in Indian economy has been fueled predominantly by the service sector. With recent initiatives by the Government, the manufacturing sector is expected to play a vital role in the growth story of India in coming years. One of the impediments for industrial growth in India has been considered to be lack of world-class infrastructure. To maintain high growth and take other diversified stakeholders of an emerging economy like India, it is indispensable to invest more for infrastructure development. In this paper, we have created a physical infrastructure index for the economy, to track the infrastructure status and pace of improvement in the infrastructure. We analyze whether infrastructure has a role in increasing GDP and manufacturing sector output, using data for the period 1981-2011. Using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), we delineate that infrastructure has both long term and short term positive impacts on output of Indian economy. On the other hand, infrastructure has no short run impact on manufacturing output but has a significant long term positive impact on manufacturing output. This affirms that infrastructure plays significant role in stimulating growth in the economy.

BACKTESTING VAR MODELS: THE CASE OF COMMODITIES

Devesh Shankar, Prateek Bedi, Shalini Agnihotri and Jappanjyot Kaur Kalra

Volume 38, Issue 1

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One of the most widely used methods to quantify risk is ‘Value at Risk’. VaR models are useful only if they predict future risks accurately. This paper focuses on a comparative evaluation of three broad approaches to calculate VaR for nine commodities traded on Multi Commodity Exchange of India. The primary objective of the study is to identify the most accurate VaR model for each commodity in particular and commodity asset class in general. VaR is calculated using five different methods (two methods each of parametric & non-parametric approaches and one method of semi-parametric approach) for all nine commodities for a period of nine years starting October 2006 till October 2015. To identify the better performing VaR methods accurately, the analysis is performed in two phases, Pre-Crisis (October 2006 to December 2009) and Post Crisis (January 2010 to October 2015). Results suggest Volatility Weighted Historical Simulation (VWHS) VaR method has outperformed other methods in both parts of the analysis exhibiting a success ratio of 100% each time. We also conclude that the selection of similar or contrasting data periods in terms of market conditions for VaR calculation and VaR backtesting affects the performance of VaR methods in general. These findings are relevant for retail and institutional investors who hold commodities in their portfolios and traders who need to calculate VaR for their commodity portfolios.

MACROECONOMIC POLICIES AND STOCK MARKET PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA

Ndubuisi Jamani and Kennedy Prince Modugu

Volume 38, Issue 1

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This study investigates the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on stock market performance in Nigeria using the Structural Vector Autoregressive (VAR) techniques. Using Yearly data covering the period 1981-2013, the VAR procedure was employed to empirically show the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on stock market performance. Results from the empirical analysis show that monetary policy has the capacity to influence stock market performance in Nigeria. Also, monetary policy shocks are not unstable in their effects on stock market. The results also show that fiscal policy impacts on stock market performance. In comparative terms, monetary policy appears to have a stronger effect on stock market performance than fiscal policy. However, there appears not to be any unsystematic response of stock market performance to shocks in both policies. It is therefore recommended that attention should be given to stock market reaction to monetary and fiscal policy moves. Consequently, the policy direction in this regard should be such that is able to stimulate the performance of the stock market.

STACKELBERG LEADERSHIP BY A PRICE FOLLOWER

C. Saratchand and Nidhi Bagaria

Volume 38, Issue 1

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The Cournot-Bertrand model of oligopoly was introduced in the 1970s. It involved some firms being price setters while other firms were output setters. However there remained a question about the identity of the entity which changed the prices of the output setting firms. An alternative formulation of this problem is set out where in an industry there is a price leader and a price follower. But the price follower is a Stackelberg leader. The price follower tries to estimate the reaction function of the price leader through an iterative learning process and incorporate the former into its profit maximisation exercise. Thereby the price follower tries to factor in the consequences of changes in its output on the price it receives. The equilibrium, local stability and analogy of the model with respect to the Cournot-Bertrand model of oligopoly are examined. Such a set-up is compatible with constant returns to scale of the production process of the price follower.

Book Review - BUSINESS SUTRA: A VERY INDIAN APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT

Chhavi Kiran

Volume 37, Issue 2

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Business Sutra is a very stimulating compilation of Devdutt Pattanaik which has power to change the notion that business has nothing to do with belief. The author has beautifully illustrated the association of management with beliefs in Indian culture.

Book Review - CORPORATE FRAUDS & THEIR REGULATIONS IN INDIA

Abhay Jain

Volume 37, Issue 2

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Corporate fraud, whether big or small has become a persisting phenomenon now these days. If someone delves down the surface of the corporate world, he will come across a continuous stream of crucial corporate scams which are approximately unbelievable in the sheer scale of their subterfuge. The perpetrators of such frauds intricate their web of deceit, entice the stakeholders initially to invest their hard earned money and become fugitives someday by allegedly duping these stakeholders leaving them behind for terrible consequences. It becomes imperative to spread awareness by engaging the readers to enlighten them about the major causes of such frauds, enable them to analyse fraud risk and accordingly legal remedies available under different regulatory frameworks for effective fraud preventions, in turn minimizing financial catastrophes.

INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL DISCLOSURES PRACTICES OF INDIAN FIRMS

Harsh Purohit and Kamini Tandon

Volume 37, Issue 2

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In the New Economy, Intellectual Capital(IC) can be recognized as an integral factor driving economic growth. Rapid globalization characterized by advances in technology, research & development and increasing competition has been essentially driven by growth in IC. But the current accounting framework do not provide for mandatory reporting of intellectual capital items in the annual financial statements in any country. There is limited disclosure of intellectual capital related items and whatever information is provided, it is based on voluntary disclosures only. At best, the only intangible assets that have found place in corporate financial statements are in the nature of intellectual property such as patents, trademarks and acquired items like goodwill. Tangible assets have failed to explain the increasing gap between market and book value of firms, this creates the need for more comprehensive disclosure practices taking into account the crucial contribution of intangible resources. Thus, the present study has been undertaken to study and analyze the intellectual capital disclosure practices of publicly listed firms in India in which can provide useful information on developing the intellectual capital base of the nation.

TO STAY OR TO QUIT: THE CLIMATE MATTERS

Gurpreet Randhawa and Kuldeep Kaur

Volume 37, Issue 2

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Successful organizations strive to solve the perennial problem of employee turnover drawing their focus on factors which are considered responsible for it. The present study aims to determine the perception of employee turnover intentions and its relationship with organizational climate. The sample consisted of 509 respondents working in 10 large scale food processing companies of Punjab. The data was collected using a single structured questionnaire and was analysed using Pearson product–moment correlation and multiple regression analysis. The findings of the study have indicated a moderate level of employee turnover intentions prevailing in the large scale food processing companies of Punjab. A strong negative correlation has been observed between overall organizational climate and turnover intentions (r = -0.603, p<.01). Further, the result of multiple regression analysis has shown that the dimensions of organizational climate such as supervisory support, clarity of organizational goals, participation, welfare, training, pressure to produce, efficiency, integration, performance feedback and autonomy have significant impact in determining the employee turnover intentions.